of neural networks can be mainly reduced to the number of adjustable parameters,
namely the number of weights and the number of biases. Although the number of
hidden layers also seems to influence the complexity of the neural networks
on the first sight, the dimensionality of the optimization hyperspace and with
it the complexity of the model is only defined by the number of adjustable parameters
while the number of hidden layers influences only the direction of the optimization
walk in the hyperspace. Consequently, the number of parameters can be ascribed
to the sum of links, hidden neurons and output neurons. The number of adjustable
parameters n can be calculated
nl is the number of
all links in the network, nh
is the number of hidden neurons and nois the number of output neurons. For uniform fully connected networks,
the number of links can be replaced:
nv as the number of input variables
(input neurons). Consequently, several strategies are possible for optimizing
the model complexity and thus the neural networks :
Optimizing the number of input variables nv by a variable
Optimizing the number of hidden layers and the number of
neurons in the hidden layers nh.
strategy is known as feature selection or variable selection  and has been proposed
and applied in numerous publications. Thereby an optimal subset of variables
is selected, avoiding an overfitting and the inclusion of too noisy and redundant
variables, which could hide meaningful variables ,.
Additionally, the danger of chance correlation, which is further discussed in
chapter 7, decreases with fewer variables .
Many variable selection strategies have been proposed and compared 
such as the two stepwise algorithms forward addition and backward elimination
such as orthogonal descriptors and successive projection algorithms for linear
calibration models ,
and such as simulated annealing -
and genetic algorithms ,-,
which contain random search steps. Especially the last two approaches have been
demonstrated to be superior in the case of many variables -,.
A compression of the input variables by the use of a principal component analysis
can also help to reduce the number of parameters -.
The most important approaches are discussed in detail in the sections
2.8.3 to 2.8.10.
strategy optimizes the inner topology of the neural networks by varying the
number of hidden layers and number of neurons in the hidden layers, whereby
the networks are fully connected. In most publications dealing with neural networks,
this task is performed by a trial and error procedure and relies on the intuition
of the user. Yet, there are two non-manual approaches for finding an optimal
inner topology of neural networks. The first approach is based on the use of
genetic algorithms for finding the optimal number of hidden layers and hidden
neurons whereby the number of neurons of each layer is directly coded into the
genetic string .
This approach is usually combined with a variable selection based on genetic
The second approach is based on neural networks with growing hidden layers.
Thereby full-connected hidden neurons are added to a single hidden layer ,-
or to a prespecified location (known as cascade correlation architecture )
until the error of prediction does not improve any more. All approaches based
on the second strategy are faced by 2 major drawbacks: Only fully connected
neurons are added to the network resulting in a simultaneous addition of many
parameters per addition step and the place where to add the neurons is not optimized
by any of the algorithms.
strategy, which is also known as topology optimization, should be superior to
the first two strategies since both, the number of input variables and the number
and location of the hidden neurons are simultaneously optimized resulting in
a synergetic effect. Additionally, the presence of each single possible link
and with it each single parameter is decided on when building non-uniform networks.
Thus, the number of adjustable parameters is effectively reduced, allowing the
iterative calibration procedure of neural networks to find a better solution
 than fully connected networks.
Three general approaches can be found in literature following this strategy.
The first approach is based on a structure generation and evaluation by the
use of genetic algorithms -.
In the second approach unimportant links of a big network are removed by so-called
pruning techniques ,,-.
The third approach is based on growing non-uniform neural networks proposed
by Vinod et al. .
In the next sections, the different methods for selecting and compressing variables
are discussed and then the three approaches for the optimization of the network
topology are looked at in more detail.